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Cotton Fabric

About Cotton

A white fibrous substance used in textile industry and as a thread for sewing.

A white fibrous substance used in textile industry and as a thread for sewing. Fiber and lint are the most useful parts of a cotton plant as they are used in making cotton cloth. Cotton is used in our daily routine in various forms like towels, bedsheets, denims and many more. Oil is extracted from the seeds of cotton plant known as cottonseed oil which is further used in cooking, making soaps and cosmetics.


Mexico discovered the oldest cotton fibers and boll fragments around 5000 B.C.

First spinning of cotton was done in 1730 by a machinery in England. First cotton gin was developed by Eli Whitney in 1793. In 1818, at a fort Gloaster near Kolkata first Indian cotton cloth mill was established. 'Bombay spinning and weaving company' was the second mill established in 1854 in India.

Cotton Making Process


Seedling is done for producing cotton. As the plant grows, flower buds are seen at the top of the cotton plant. These buds then open their blossoms and the petals slowly start changing their colour from white to red. Cotton bolls are formed after few days. These bolls ripe and they turn brown in colour. Finally the white and fluffy cotton comes out.


Modules are used for storing cotton before ginning to maintain the quality of cotton. These modules are placed in module feeders and they break the modules apart. Cotton seed is feeded into the gin after which dryers and cleaning machines remove the waste from the cotton. Fiber is plucked from the seeds in the gin stand. Dense bales are made by pressing the ginned fiber also called as lint. From each bales samples are taken to determine the value of cotton according to colour, strenght and length of the fiber. The ginner buys the seed from the producer and sells them to the oil mill.


The cotton bales are opened at the mills and they are cleaned by blowing and beating. The fluffy cotton goes into a carding machine for further cleaning. This machine cleans and straightens the cotton fiber and makes a straight and soft rope called as slivers. Spinning of these slivers on spinning frames makes a yarn for knitting and weaving into fabrics. The fabric is wooven on machines known as looms. This fabric goes into the market after it has been bleached, dyed and printed.


  • To maintain the quality of the cotton fabric and prevent shrinkage always check the wash care label on each garment.
  • In summer season, cotton fabric should not be dried under direct sunlight as this will cause color fading.
  • Mild detergents should be used for washing and rinse the fabric properly since the residue detergent can diminish the softness of the fabric.
  • Wash dark colors separately and dry them inside out to prevent color fading.
  • It is recommended to wash cotton fabrics in cold water (normal tap water).


  • Cotton fabric gives a very soft feel to the wearer.
  • Cotton fabric is breathable and transmits moisture from the body.
  • This fabric can be worn round the year since it protects body against heat in summers and cold in winters.
  • Cotton fabric is strong as compared to other fabrics and hence it's more durable.
  • It is recommended to use cotton bed sheets as compared to sheets made from synthetic fibers to get a better night sleep. 
  • Cotton fabric does not require dry cleaning and it's easy to maintain this fabric.
  • Pilling of cotton fabric is very easy as the fabric doesn't slip.


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