A natural fiber produced by spinning the fibers found in the stem of the Flax plantBuff and Gray are the natural colors for linen fibers. Linen fabric is costly compared to other fabrics since the weaving of Flax thread into cotton is difficuilt due to its elasticity. Knitted as well as woven linen fabrics are used for making garments. Best linens are completely free from slubs - tiny knots in the threads.
Wild flax was used for making woven linen fabrics. In Swiss lake dwellings fragments of seeds, fibers, straw, yarns and various types of fabrics were found. In ancient Mesopotamia linen was reserved for higher classes. In Greek linen is also written as "li-no". The most famous linen producing center was Belfast. In Victorian era majority of world's linen was produced there. As per belief in Bible, linen was worn by the angels.
To harvest flax plant, it takes about 100 days from the seed plantation. Flax can not tolerate very hot weather thus in many countries, the seed sowing comes from the date of the year or the date of time, due to heat, the flax should be cut and the farmers have calculated 100 days to determine the date for planting. In some areas of the world, flax is planted during the winter due to heat in early spring. In commercial production, the soil is sown in spring and then worked in good planting through discing, crackling and rolling. In three months, the plants are straight, thin stalks that can be 2-4 feet (61-122 centimeters) in height with small blue or white fibers. (Flax plant with blue flowers produces the best linen fibers.)
Flax is uprooted to preserve the potential of each plant. Earlier it was hand harvested and the best and longest fibers were selected after removing the seeds. But now mechanical grubbers are used for harvesting.
After harvesting, flax is allowed to dry and seeds are removed from the dried flax.
The fibers are binded together after the pectins break down from the flax. The stalk of the plant cannot be separated from the fiber if the flax is not fully retted. For many weeks flax remains spread out for getting exposed to rain and sunshine.
Short and long fibers are produced after the fibers are separated from the straw. Coarser yarns is created from short fibers and finest linen yarn is created from long fibers.
Long and short fibers are piled together on spinning looms. Wet spinning technique is used for twisting long fibers and converting them into softer and smoother yarn.
The yarns are examined before weaving them. To ensure quality, a central computer monitors the running looms. The fabric is again examined after weaving. Bleaching and dyeing of the raw fabric is done in the finishing department. Different treatments are applied to the fabric for making it soil and crease resistant after bleaching and dyeing.